类型:奇幻地区:莫桑比克剧发布:2021-02-26 14:56:43


I am well aware of the popular opinion that such subjects are too abstruse to be understood by practical mechanics鈥攁n assumption that is founded mainly in the fact that the subject of heat and motion are not generally studied, and have been too recently demonstrated in a scientific way to command confidence and attention; but the subject is really no more difficult to understand in an elementary sense than that of the relation between movement and force illustrated in the "mechanical powers" of school-books, which no apprentice ever did or ever will understand, except by first studying the principles of force and motion, independent of mechanical agents, such as screws, levers, wedges, and so on.

[29] Machinery of transmission.

1. The steam-engine is an agent for utilising the power of heat and applying it to useful purposes.CHAPTER XXVI. STEAM-HAMMERS.The relation between invention and the engineering arts, and especially between invention and machines, will warrant a short review of the matter here; or even if this reason were wanting, there is a sufficient one in the fact that one of the first aims of an engineering apprentice is to invent something; and as the purpose here is, so far as the limits will permit, to say something upon each subject in which a beginner has an interest, invention must not be passed over.

Inherent or cooling strains in castings is much more intricate than shrinkage: it is, in fact, one of the most uncertain and obscure matters that pattern-makers and moulders have to contend with. Inherent strains may weaken castings, or cause them to break while cooling, or sometimes even after they are finished; and in many kinds of works such strains must be carefully guarded against, both in the preparation of designs and the arrangement of patterns, especially for wheels and pulleys with spokes, and for struts or braces with both ends fixed. The main difficulty resulting from cooling strains, however, is that of castings being warped and sprung; this difficulty is continually present in the foundry and machine-shop, and there is perhaps no problem in the whole range of mechanical manipulation of which there exists more diversity of opinion and practice than of means to prevent the springing of castings. This being the case, an apprentice can hardly hope for much information here. There is no doubt of springing and strains in castings being the result of constant causes that might be fully understood if it were not for the ever-changing conditions which exist in casting, both as to the form of pieces, the temperature and quality of metal, mode of cooling, and so on.In cylindrical fitting, which as before pointed out, constitutes the greater part in machine fitting, gauges are especially important, because trial-fitting is in most cases impossible.

There is but little object in preparing designs, when their counterparts may already exist, so that in making original plans, there should be a careful research as to what has been already done in the same line. It is not only discouraging, but annoying, after studying a design with great care, to find that it has been anticipated, and that the scheme studied out has been one of reproduction only. For this reason, attempts to design should at first be confined to familiar subjects, instead of venturing upon unexplored ground.The steam-engine, in the sense in which the term is employed, means not only steam-using machinery, but steam-generating machinery or plant; it includes the engine proper, with the boiler, mechanism for feeding water to the boiler, machinery for governing speed, indicators, and other details.

Were it not that moral influences in learning mechanics, as in all other kinds of education, lie at the bottom of the whole matter, the subject of this chapter would not have been introduced. But it is the purpose, so far as possible, to notice everything that concerns an apprentice and learner, and especially what he has to deal with at the outset; hence some remarks upon the nature of apprentice engagements will not be out of place. To acquire information or knowledge of any kind successfully and permanently, it must be a work of free volition, as well as from a sense of duty or expediency; and whatever tends to create love and respect for a pursuit or calling, becomes one of the strongest incentives for its acquirement, and the interest taken by an [19] apprentice in his business is for this reason greatly influenced by the opinions that he may hold concerning the nature of his engagement.

Machinery can be divided into four classes, each constituting a division that is very clearly defined by functions performed, as follows:鈥

Cutting tools include nearly all that are employed in finishing; lathes, planing machines, drilling and boring machines, shaping, slotting and milling machines, come within this class. The machines named make up what are called standard tools, such [120]as are essential and are employed in all establishments where general machine manufacture is carried on. Such machines are constructed upon principles substantially the same in all countries, and have settled into a tolerably uniform arrangement of movements and parts.The End

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This is one theory of the principle upon which the Barker wheel operates, which has been laid down in Vogdes' "Mensuration," and perhaps elsewhere. The other theory alluded to is that, direct action and reaction being equal, ponderable matter discharged tangentally from the periphery of a wheel must create a reactive force equal to the direct force with which the weight is thrown off. To state it more plainly, the spouting water that issues from the arm of a Barker wheel must react in the opposite course in proportion to its weight.

Following this proposition into modern engineering examples, we find how practice has gradually conformed to what these properties in belts suggest. Wire and other ropes of small diameter, to avoid air friction, and allowed to droop in low curves to avoid too many supporting pulleys, are now in many cases employed for transmitting power through long distances, as at Schaffhausen, in Germany. This system has been very successfully applied in some cases for distributing power in large manufacturing establishments. Belts, among which are included all flexible bands, do not afford the same facilities for [49]taking off power at different points as shafts, but have advantages in transmitting power to portable machinery, when power is to be taken off at movable points, as in the case of portable travelling cranes, machines, and so on.




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