Nothing animate or inanimate in nature is uniform; plants, trees, animals, are all different; even the air we breathe and the temperature around us is constantly changing; only one thing is constant, that is time, and to this must we go for all our standards.
This proposition argues the expediency of reducing the proportions of mill gearing and increasing its speed, a change which has gradually been going on for fifty years past; but there are opposing conditions which make a limit in this direction, such as the speed at which bearing surfaces may run, centrifugal strain, jar, and vibration. The object is to fix upon a point between what high speed, light weight, cheapness of cost suggest, and what the conditions of practical use and endurance demand.
4. Mechanical drawings should be made with reference to all the processes that are required in the construction of the work, and the drawings should be responsible, not only for dimensions, but for unnecessary expense in fitting, forging, pattern-making, moulding, and so on.The adaptation, endurance, and cost of machines in designing become resolved into problems of movements, the arrangement of parts, and proportions.
Presuming an engineering establishment to consist of one-storey buildings, and the main operations to be conducted on the ground level, the only vertical lifting to be performed will be in the erecting room, where the parts of machines are assembled. This room should be reached in every part by over-head travelling cranes, that cannot only be used in turning, moving, and placing the work, but in loading it upon cars or waggons. One result of the employment of over-head travelling cranes, often overlooked, is a saving of floor-room; in ordinary fitting, from one-third more to twice the number of workmen will find room in an erecting shop if a travelling-crane is employed, the difference being that, in moving pieces they may pass over the top of other pieces instead of requiring long open passages on the floor. So marked is this saving of room effected by over-head cranes, that in England, where they are generally employed, handling is not only less expensive and quicker, but the area of erecting floors is usually one-half as much as in America, where travelling-cranes are not employed.These are, however, not the only reasons which have led to a running platen for planing machines, although they are the most important.This importance of shop processes in machine construction is generally realised by proprietors, but not thoroughly understood in all of its bearings; an apprentice may notice the continual effort that is made to augment the production of engineering-works, which is the same thing as shortening the processes.
The expense of forming pattern-moulds may be considered as divided between the foundry and pattern-shop. What a pattern-maker saves a moulder may lose, and what a pattern-maker spends a moulder may save; in other words, there is a point beyond which saving expense in patterns is balanced by extra labour and waste in moulding鈥攁 fact that is not generally realised because of inaccurate records of both pattern and foundry work. What is lost or saved by judicious or careless management in the matter of patterns and moulding can only be known to those who are well skilled in both moulding and pattern-making. A moulder may cut all the fillets in a mould with a trowel; he may stop off, fill  up, and print in, to save pattern-work, but it is only expedient to do so when it costs very much less than to prepare proper patterns, because patching and cutting in moulds seldom improves them.Machines and tools operating by percussive action, although they comprise a numerous class, and are applied in nearly all mechanical operations, have never received that amount of attention in text-books which the importance of the machines and their extensive use calls for. Such machines have not even been set off as a class and treated of separately, although the distinction is quite clear between machines with percussive action, and those with what may be termed direct action, both in the manner of operating and in the general plans of construction. There is, of course, no lack of formul? for determining the measure of force, and computing the dynamic effect of percussive machines acting against a measured or assumed resistance, and so on; but this is not what is meant. There are certain conditions in the operation of machines, such as the strains which fall upon supporting frames, the effect produced upon malleable material when struck or pressed, and more especially of conditions which may render percussive or positive acting machines applicable to certain purposes; but little explanation has been given which is of value to practical men.
6. Handling material in machine construction is one of the principal expenses to be dealt with; each time a piece is moved its cost is enhanced, and usually in a much greater degree than is supposed.Referring first to the saving effected by combining several operations in one machine, there is perhaps not one constructor in twenty that ever stops to consider what is really gained, and perhaps not one purchaser in a hundred that does the same thing. The impression is, that when one machine performs two operations it saves a second machine. A remarkable example of this exists in the manufacture of combination machines in Europe for working wood, where it is common to find complicated  machines that will perform all the operations of a joiner's shop, but as a rule only one thing at a time, and usually in an inconvenient manner, each operation being hampered and interfered with by another; and in changing from one kind of work to another the adjustments and changes generally equal and sometimes exceed the work to be done. What is stranger still is, that such machines are purchased, when their cost often equals that of separate machines to perform the same work.
1. The value of pneumatic apparatus in reaching places where steam furnaces cannot be employed.Motive machinery.
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In the manufacture of machines, there are usually so many sizes and modifications, that drawings should assist and determine in a large degree the completeness of classification and record. Taking the manufacture of machine tools, for example: we cannot well say, each time they are to be spoken of, a thirty-six inch lathe without screw and gearing, a thirty-two inch lathe with screw and gearing, a forty-inch lathe triple geared or double geared, with a twenty or thirty foot frame, and so on. To avoid this it is necessary to assume symbols for machines of different classes, consisting generally of the letters of the alphabet, qualified by a single number as an exponent to designate capacity or different modifications. Assuming, in the case of engine lathes, A to be the symbol for lathes of all sizes, then those of different capacity and modification can be represented in the drawings and records as A1, A2, A3, A4, and so on, requiring but two characters to indicate a lathe of any kind. These symbols should be marked in large plain letters on the left-hand lower corner of sheets, so that the manager, workman, or any one else, can see at a glance what the  drawings relate to. This symbol should run through the time-book, cost account, sales record, and be the technical name for machines to which it applies; in this way machines will always be spoken of in the works by the name of their symbol.I now come to note a matter in connection with draughting to which the attention of learners is earnestly called, and which, if neglected, all else will be useless. I allude to indigestion, and its resultant evils. All sedentary pursuits more or less give rise to this trouble, but none of them so much as draughting. Every condition to promote this derangement exists. When the muscles are at rest, circulation is slow, the mind is intensely occupied, robbing the stomach of its blood and vitality, and, worse than all, the mechanical action of the stomach is usually arrested by leaning over the edge of a board. It is regretted that no good rule can be given to avoid this danger. One who understands the evil may in a degree avert it by applying some of the logic which has been recommended in the study of mechanics. If anything tends to induce indigestion, its opposite tends the other way, and may arrest it; if stooping over a board interferes with the action of the digestive organs, leaning back does the opposite; it is therefore best to have a desk as high as possible, stand when at work, and cultivate a constant habit of straightening up and throwing the shoulders back, and if possible, take brief intervals of vigorous exercise. Like rating the horse-power of a steam-engine, by multiplying the force into the velocity, the capacity of a man can be estimated by multiplying his mental acquirements into his vitality.First. By combining two or more operations in one machine, the only objects gained are a slight saving in first cost, one frame answering for two or more machines, and a saving of floor room.
When a piece is placed on an anvil, and struck on the top side with a certain force, the bottom or anvil side of the piece does not receive an equal force. A share of the blow is absorbed by the inertia of the piece struck, and the effect on the bottom side is, theoretically, as the force of the blow, less the cushioning effect and the inertia of the pieces acted upon.Sixth.鈥擨nherent, or cooling strains, that may either spring and warp castings, or weaken them by maintained tension in certain parts鈥攁 condition that often requires a disposition of the metal quite different from what working strains demand.详情
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